Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Deep South: A Social Anthropolical Study of Caste and Class: A Brief Summary



A group of social anthropologists directed by Allison Davis of the University of Chicago went to Old City and Old County Mississippi during the Great Depression to study the amount of racial prejudice existent in the Deep South of the United States. Old County and Old City were selected because the economy is based on the old cotton plantation system. Old City contains a population of roughly 50% black, 50% white, Old County contains a population of 80% black, 20% white. Apparently, two types of social order exists within the Deep South. A class system based on sociological factors, status or income, and a caste system based primarily on race.

"A caste may be defined as a endogamous and hereditary sub-division of a ethnic unit occupying a position of superior or inferior rank or social esteem in comparison with other sub-divisions."* This clearly does not denote a class system which contains upward or downward social mobility. A caste system allows for no such mobility because members of different castes cannot intermarry. Therefore, competition exists between castes for control of power. One caste will assume a superordinate role, another a subordinate role. In our present discussion the white race is disproportionately dominant and "all social institutions in the South including family, school, association, clique, church, and so on, are formed to fit the dominant caste social situation."**

In this paper the situation will be viewed as the social order existed during the study and as a afterthought speculate about what kind of conditions might be evident to change the social pattern.

The White Ideology: Keeping the Black Man in his Place.

It is a prominent belief along whites that blacks are a illiterate group, incapable of learning, child-like in their behavior, unmanageable people. This belief is demonstrated through caste sanctions and behavior. Blacks are expected to pay deference to whites. If a black and white person meet on the street, the black person is expected to give way. When addressing a white man, a black man must use the adjective "Sir," to denote respect, while a white man must never show respect to the black man. Violations of this caste sanction is considered "rebellion." After a series of minor infractions of the caste regulations, "whipping parties," or in some extreme cases "public hangings" are initiated to demonstrate to other would be offenders the "correctness" of the white cast ideology.

Endogamy and the Caste Sexual Taboos

Sexual taboos exist in the caste system to support the law of endogamous marriage but they vary depending upon the sex and color of the person involved. Due to the notion of white female purity, any acts of sexual intercourse between white females and black males violates the strongest sexual taboo and warrants a terrible punishment. If discovered, white females will either be publicly whipped, hanged, or "put on a train.". Sexual intercourse between white men and black women is permitted, if the relationship is conducted covertly. Most sexual encounters of this sort are for profit,  the black female is paid a wage. But in some cases white men actually have black mistresses and families they support for life.

The implications of sexual intermingled  castes is clear. If the white man could incorporate his children into the white caste group the caste distinction based upon race would disappear. But caste endogamy extends also to children. Children born miscegenation are always placed into the mothers caste group. The effects of this law are discussed more thoroughly in the section on black social class groups.

The White Social Class System

The white class system is rooted in ideological differences. The white upper-class group pay deference to "old wealth," or the amount of time money has existed in the family. Middle-class groups base their ideology in morals, middle-class people place a high value on wealth, and emphasize the "need to improve." Poor whites distinguish themselves on the basis of "consistency of a job," for a great many lower-class families are either unemployed or are working on work relief programs. Class differences are rooted in antagonisms. A sociological death and re-birth is needed to leave one social class and enter another. This involves severing old ties, abandoning old modes of behavior, and incorporating new ones.

The base of class, then, is to distinguish who does and who does not belong. A person trying to enter the middle-class may be excluded due to lack of demonstrated middle-class qualities. A person wishing to climb from middle-class to upper-class may be excluded for lack of "old wealth."

The Effect of Miscegenation on the Black Class System

The black caste base class antagonisms primarily upon three factors; income, occupation, and race. Because black elites have no clearly defined occupation or income guidelines, to identify with, blacks often turn to race as a qualification for higher status. The degree of a persons skin color as a value is the result of two basic problems. Blacks are discriminated against in the labor market, and for psychological reasons. "The effort of black upper and middle-class individuals to maintain or to increase their class status appears to be equated psychologically with a attempt to acquire the traits of the white caste. The distinguishing traits of the white caste are skin color and hair type, so it is to be expected that whiteness of skin and straightness of hair will have value as a class sanction in the black group."*** Black upper-class members designate commonness to lower-class blacks partly on the possession or lack of these white characteristics. Also, a notion exists in black groups that blacks with a more  pronounced negroid tint are regarded as unclean.  Black nurses with more pronounced white attributes were found to be washing their hands quite frequently and expressing disgust when handling darker black patients. A white doctor exclaimed, "Why they abhor those people worse than I do!"

The Changing Economy

Old County's economy depends on cotton. Cotton cultivation requires a long growing season, (210+ days) and a large group of skilled and unskilled workers.

When a tenant rents from a landlord in Old County he or she either pays a fixed cash or lint payment. This is largely dependent upon two factors,  The number of people in the tenants "squad," or the number of people in the tenants family, or whether a tenant has his or her own implements or farm stock. This is fundamentally important when viewed in context with uncontrollable changes in Old County's economy.  During 1934-35, a large boll weevil infestation destroyed a majority of the crop. That year the harvest was so low as to force a large number of tenants into the newly developed industrial firms in Old City. The entire economy suffered from deflated cotton prices as a result of the Great Depression.  The Federal  Government began the cotton reduction program.***** This caused a labor shortage. Landlords soon found themselves competing for labor. The tactics landlords used to keep labor on the farm and still maintain profit included economic or physical intimidation, or violence upon the tenants to keep them in a perpetual state of peonage.

Literate tenants cannot challenge the plantation system for several reasons. (1) Blacks are excluded from holding political office and in most cases are excluded from the polls. (2) Blacks are excluded from buying land. (3) Blacks cannot sue landlords for theft. (4) Black testimony is considered invalid in criminal cases. (5) The police ignore black civil or criminal complaints. Whites exclude black participation in the most fundamental and basic institutions in the United States. Therefore, all law, legislation, political platform, and judicial decisions favor the white caste.

Conclusion: Death of the Plantation System

The plantation system cannot endure.  Old County is no longer isolated from the world of technology and industrialization.  When the system of agriculture changes planting more acres of land by share croppers to tractors and fertilizer, a great number of farm workers will no longer be necessary.  Migration from Old County into Old Town will change demographics and culture as well.  The standard of living will improve.  This will prompt educational opportunities and stimulate class awareness. The result is certain, the entire cultural restructure of the Deep South.


Footnotes

*Please refer to page 3 for more details.
**Please refer to Chapter 1.
***Page 235
****The Federal Government placed a limit
on the number of acres a planter could grow in cotton to stabilize cotton prices. Those acres not grown in cotton were compensated for in subsidiary payments.

Monday, January 28, 2019

William S. Burroughs: Drug Dependency Versus Drug Addiction

William S. Burroughs in Junkie wrote the best definition of drug dependency versus drug addiction I have ever seen. Burroughs points out that opium derivatives cause physical addiction.  Marijuana causes psychological dependency but no addiction because if you run out of the pot and cannot secure more the body does not go through physical withdrawal symptoms.   Burroughs also noted that even though cocaine increases dopamine levels in the brain, and despite the fact that pigeons will peck a lever for a dopamine reinforcement to the exclusion of all else until they drop dead, these facts have no relevance, if the stimulus is withdrawn and the behavior ceases without the physical distress associated with withdrawal syndromes.  Thus by strict definition behavior associated with cocaine use is driven by dependency, not addiction.

I have had discussions with potheads who insist they are addicted to Marijuana.  But potheads function in a fog of altered perceptual awareness.  True some pot heads will spend days running around town looking for an elusive lid, waiting around in cars for hours, while friends look for contacts.  Most times they come up empty-handed.  But this behavior to secure more dope is not driven by physical distress that requires "the cure" at Lexington's Narcotic Farm.

Marijuana as a gateway drug has never been established.  However,  Marijuana dependency has some adverse consequences.   I knew a woman who would steal items from her family members and run off to a pawn shop.  While stoned, she would craft a masterful plan to steal without being caught.  This woman had a very reduced mental capacity, an intelligence quotient of 70, but when she was stoned she thought she was an exalted princess of a higher dimension.  Of course, when challenged, she resorted to habitual lies and denials a narcissistic psychopath would envy.  Her denials were so transparent a three-year-old child could have seen through them, and when confronted with absolute facts as to her culpability, she would explode into childish temper tantrums intended to intimidate you into backing down.  The old biker gang momma bitch act.  I always thought she was nothing more than a second rate con artist.  If she had been a little smarter, she would have run a Ponzi scheme like Bernard Madoff, living like a queen in a mansion, with high priced cars, a yacht, dining at the finest restaurants, swindling other people like a bloated parasite until she was arrested.  Later on, she would act all innocent and friendly like nothing happened.  Anti-social personalities have lack of impulse control, they take things without permission based upon immediate need, rush off to the pawnshop, pocket the money, then congratulate themselves on a job well done.  Anti-social personalities have no morality, no conscious, they are indifferent to the damage they do to other people.  People exist to be used as pawns.  Why does she do these things?  She needs to get stoned!  Marijuana dependency mixed with anti-social traits is as damaging as a heroin addict committing burglary to support a habit.

Monday, October 15, 2018

Dr. Rachel McKinnon: Women's Cycling Fraud

Women's cycling has gone off the rails.  A Transgender "woman" Dr. Rachel McKinnon, won the women's 35-39 UCI masters track sprint world championship.  Dr. McKinnon edged out two biological females, Carolien van Herrikuyzen of the Netherlands, and Jennifer Wagner of the United States.


Social media went crazy.  Comments ranged from gender fluidity to political correctness, to the death of women's sport.  I questioned the sanity of the UCI who allowed a biological male to compete with females, apparently with the acquiescence of USA Cycling, when cycling boasted a mantra of "fair play."

When Chris Froome tested positive for salbutamol no one cared.  When Floyd Landis had a 4.1/1 testosterone/ epitestosterone ratio the UCI raced to fire up the carbon isotope ratio test.  But, now the newly crowned Transgender women's track sprint master, Dr. Rachel McKinnon, is complaining about a dangerously low endogenous testosterone level, "below a woman" that is impeding her performance. Dr. McKinnon is demanding an exemption from taking testosterone suppression drugs as a human right.  Apparently, her fast twitch fibers were inhibited somehow and she wants to build a little extra muscle mass from the testosterone produced by the gonadal Leydig cells women do not possess.  Dr. McKinnon wants total domination of female sport thanks to unnatural biological advantages Transgender athletes have acquired as men.  This domination must be embraced by all female cyclists and cycling fanatics.  Of course, the fact that biological women will suffer a penalty from this unnatural arrangement is of no concern to Dr. McKinnon.  Perhaps, all future female cycling races will evolve into exclusive Transgender "women," athletic events.

Poor women's cycling.  Hanging by a thread.  In local criteriums, class 1, 2, and 3 women all raced together in a single race.  The men had multiple teams in multiple races. The women's Tour de France has generated marginal interest.  Now we have a man winning a woman's masters sprint world championship jersey.  I am so sickened by this folly I could almost puke.  How do we endear women to our sport if men are allowed to win every women's race?  Who wants to watch a group of men masquerading as women in criterium races?

Women of the cycling world hear my plea: if a man enters your race, strike!  Lay down your bicycles and leave the velodrome.  Bernard Hinault would not have tolerated this bullshit for one instant!  Women!  You are being cheated.  Refuse to ride!  If the UCI doesn't like it tell them to pound sand!

The UCI should know better than to inflame women's passions.  This is a mistake.  The women cyclists on social media are angry!  There is no reason to train for an important race if a man is going to participate and win.  Women are not going to put up with this nonsense for long.  Then, beware!

Carolien Herrikuyzen is the true world champion.  Dr. McKinnon is a fraud, she should have never been allowed to participate.  The master races are being trivialized, cycling will be mocked and ridiculed.  Regain sanity, gender fluidity has no place in cycling!

UPDATE

Dr. Jennifer Wagner has tweeted that the UCI was wrong to allow a biological male to compete against women. Dr. McKinnon called Dr. Wagner a "transphobic bigot," a standard cliche and label Transgenders use when anyone is critical of their viewpoints. Carolien Herrikuyzen stated that the race was conducted under UCI rules and if anyone disagreed with the rules they need not race. Therefore, the race was "fair." Dr. Wagner is correct, the race was not fair, the UCI needs to change the rules, and women cyclists need to boycott races until the UCI makes the necessary modifications in the rules. Women's races are to include biological females only. Allowing men to race in women's races is cheating and far worse than doping.

Sunday, July 29, 2018

2018 Tour de France Bedlam

Geraint Thomas and Team SKY wins another Tour de France!  Break out the champagne!  Whew!  The international cycling fanatics were outraged.  (An aside to David Brailsford, cycling fanatics attend the Tour de France from all over the world, you dolt! )  Along the course international cycling fanatics pelted team SKY cars with eggs, people attempted to leap over barriers to knock team SKY riders off their bicycles!  People spit in the faces of team SKY riders! It has been alleged that people threw urine bombs at team SKY!  Totally dangerous bedlam.


Chris Froome, four time winner of the Tour de France, had to settle for a podium third place.  Chris Froome and team SKY were lucky to get invited to race the Tour de France.  ASO did not want Chris Froome or SKY, after the UCI mysteriously dropped the salbutamol adverse analytical finding Chris Froome was charged with.  Chris Froome tested positive after Stage 18 of the 2017 Tour of Spain for salbutamol, a beta-2 agonist bronchial dilator.  The WADA threshold for salbutamol is 1,000 nanograms/milliliter. Chris Froome tested 2,000 nanograms/ milliliter.  Since salbutamol is not an endogenous substance produced by the body, the only source is an external application, like an inhaler.

Never, to my memory, has an adverse analytical finding been so thoroughly debated among the worthies at the UCI and WADA.  Dick Pound the former president of WADA, amazed me when he stated that Chris Froome may have innocently snorted too much salbutamol!  What turnabout is this?  In every other case on record riders were banned for the mere presence of a prohibited substance, regardless of circumstances.

I am simply astounded at the myriad of excuses WADA and the UCI are dishing out to explain away this innocent snorting of salbutamol.  Usually, excuses to explain away positive tests fall under the purview of the riders.  Unique physiology, specific gravity, they actually proposed doing a longitudinal study to determine if Chris Froome could keep his values constant.  Constantly above threshold?  What manner of insanity is this?  WADA standards are so variable! WADA standards should be discarded as useless rubbish!  The goal posts change either in favor of, or against, athletes depending upon the person being considered.  If you are going to use a set of standards as a bludgeon, at least be consistent, or exit the field.

Unbelievable.  Dick Pound says WADA only try cases, or spend money on cases,  prosecutors expect to win.  Really?  Floyd Landis was prosecuted with zeal based upon a single metabolite above threshold, WADA spent millions to support weak evidence, no concern for unique physiology then!  At the point of being sarcastic, Mr. Pound, your long drawn out charade proved nothing except WADA laboratory incompetence.  However,  Chris Froome is an open and shut case.  But WADA declines to appeal the UCI decision to drop the case, even though Mr. Froome would likely be banned with overwhelming evidence.  Mr. Froome was double the threshold limit on both samples.  Mr. Froome has no credible excuse to explain away these test results.  Any credible prosecutor would rip Mr. Froome to shreds.

I remember when Dick Pound wanted to throw the entire peloton in jail, suspecting everyone of doping.  Now he is acting as a apologist for the dopers, accepting every half baked spin job in existence.  Dick Pound has gone mad.  Mr Pound should refrain from adding future senile commentary until he consults with his doctor.

In 2013, I warned people about SKY and David Brailsford .  Nobody listened.  Now their biggest star Chris Froome has tested positive for salbutamol.   Nobody cares.  The indifference by the regulatory agencies almost started a riot at the Tour de France. People may get hurt next time.  David Brailsford did not improve relations when he called the people of France xenophobic hillbillies.  Next year, David Brailsford may be the spark that blows up the whole Tour.

Friday, November 10, 2017

Finger Frostbite Amputation Photographs






That's morbid!  Five minutes unprotected in a downslope wind did this damage. Surgery complements of the University of Utah intensive care burn unit and two fine women surgeons, Dr. Amalia Cochran, associate professor of surgery, and Dr. Kate Smiley.  Let me assure Dr. Cochran, women do very competent capable surgeries.